Let’s check out a function to compute summary statistics of scores in a class. This function prompts the user to enter scores and then computes the max, min and average scores.
What if we wanted to compute the median, that is the “middle” value? Could we easily adapt this function to also compute the median?
No. We can’t because to find the median we need to retain all of the scores in some way so we can then determine the “middle” value. Lists are a data structure we could use to store all of the scores.
What is a “data structure”? A particular way of organizing data. Different kinds of data structures have different properties that make them better/best suited for different kinds of computations. Data structures are such a fundamental topic in CS, we have a whole class, CS201, on data structures.
When we talk about properties what do we mean? We mean memory, time, invariants, etc. We will discuss in more detail (and with more formality) during the semester.
Let’s introduce our first data structure: Lists.
Lists can be created with
 or with
>>> [7, 4, 3, 6, 1, 2] [7, 4, 3, 6, 1, 2] >>> 10 # not a list 10 >>>  # a list with one element  >>> l = [7, 4, 3, 6, 1, 2] >>> l [7, 4, 3, 6, 1, 2] >>> type(l) <class 'list'> >>> list("abcd") ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
What happened in that example? Let’s check out the
list function (really initializer:
>>> help(list) ... list(iterable) -> new list initialized from iterable's items
Recall that a string can be treated as an ordered collection, that is it can
be iterated over (e.g., with a
for loop). If we use a string as a argument, it is
treated as a collection that can be converted into a list of characters.
How can we conceptualize lists? They are a sequences of values (much like strings are sequences of characters) of any type (e.g. integers, floats, strings, other lists, etc.)
What are some differences between lists and strings though?
>>> a_valid_list = [1, 2.0, True, "string", ] >>> a_valid_list [1, 2.0, True, 'string', ]
We can apply the same indexing, slicing and membership operators we used with strings (because lists are also sequences, just like strings).
>>> list_of_strings = ["this", "is", "a", "list", "of", "strings"] >>> list_of_strings 'this' >>> list_of_strings 'h' >>> list_of_strings.upper() 'IS' >>> list_of_strings[1:4] ['is', 'a', 'list'] >>> list_of_strings[::2] ['this', 'a', 'of'] >>> "of" in list_of_strings True
However a key difference is that we can reassign items via the indexing operator, that is indexing operations can appear on the left-hand side of an assignment operation. Notice that we reassign the last item in the list to be a different string. But if we attempt a similar reassignment with one of the strings itself, we get an error because strings are immutable. The ability to modify the contents of a list as our program executes is one of the key features (and uses of the list data structure).
>>> list_of_strings[-1] = "items" >>> list_of_strings ['this', 'is', 'a', 'list', 'of', 'items'] >>> list_of_strings = "d" Traceback (most recent call last): File "<pyshell>", line 1, in <module> TypeError: 'str' object does not support item assignment
We can also apply operators like
* for concatenation and repetition,
i.e., these operators are overloaded for lists much in the same way as strings.
>>>  +  [1, 2] >>>  * 4 [1, 1, 1, 1]
Is the following valid?
. Yes it is the empty list.
>>>  
Where might we use the empty list? Think about the empty string…
Much like we iterated over the characters of a string, we can also iterate over
the elements of a list with a
>>> for s in list_of_strings: ... print(s) ... this is a list of strings
Many of the built-in functions that are defined on strings are also defined on lists:
len(L)Returns the number of items in list L
max(L)Returns the maximum value in list L
min(L)Returns the minimum value in list L
sum(L)Returns the sum of the values in list L
sorted(L)Returns a copy of list L where the items are in order from smallest to largest (This does not mutate L.)
>>> len(list_of_strings) 6 >>> min(list_of_strings) 'a' >>> max(list_of_strings) 'this' >>> sum(list_of_strings) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'str'
max work, but not
sum? Recall that we can compare strings
with relational operators, e.g. ‘<’, but when we look at the documentation for
sum we see it is only defined for numeric types.
>>> help(sum) Help on built-in function sum in module builtins: sum(iterable, start=0, /) Return the sum of a 'start' value (default: 0) plus an iterable of numbers When the iterable is empty, return the start value. This function is intended specifically for use with numeric values and may reject non-numeric types. >>> list_of_nums = [5, 3, 7, 9, 4, 1] >>> sum(list_of_nums) 29
Lists are also objects. We can use the
dir function to list the available
>>> dir(list) ['__add__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__delitem__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__getitem__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__iadd__', '__imul__', '__init__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__mul__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__reversed__', '__rmul__', '__setattr__', '__setitem__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'append', 'clear', 'copy', 'count', 'extend', 'index', 'insert', 'pop', 'remove', 'reverse', 'sort']
A method we will use often is
sort. Recall that when we want to use
with methods (invoked on an object with a dot) we need to prefix the method name with the type, e.g.:
>>> help(list.sort) Help on method_descriptor: sort(...) L.sort(key=None, reverse=False) -> None -- stable sort *IN PLACE*
Let’s look at some other methods, specifically
>>> help(list.pop) Help on method_descriptor: pop(...) L.pop([index]) -> item -- remove and return item at index (default last). Raises IndexError if list is empty or index is out of range.
So what does this do? It “pops” the last element off the list, optionally specifying a specific index to pop, e.g.
>>> list_of_strings = ["this", "is", "a", "list", "of", "strings"] >>> list_of_strings.pop() 'strings' >>> list_of_strings ['this', 'is', 'a', 'list', 'of']
pop modifies the list on which it is invoked. Also note in this
case if you don’t assign the result of
pop to a variable it is lost forever.
That is unlike strings, which are immutable,
lists are mutable and many of
the methods, including
reverse modify the list on which they are
invoked (indicated by the
*IN PLACE* in the documentation) instead of
returning a new list (
reverse actually return
None). We will
learn more about mutability in future classes but for now, just be aware that
many of the list methods modify the list.
Is there a counterpart to
>>> list_of_strings.append("strings") >>> list_of_strings ['this', 'is', 'a', 'list', 'of', 'strings'] >>> list_of_strings.sort() >>> list_of_strings ['a', 'is', 'list', 'of', 'strings', 'this']
Compare the above to using the
sorted method, which returns a copy of the
list. Notice that
list_of_strings remains unmodified.
>>> list_of_strings = ['this', 'is', 'a', 'list', 'of', 'strings'] >>> sorted(list_of_strings) ['a', 'is', 'list', 'of', 'strings', 'this'] >>> list_of_strings ['this', 'is', 'a', 'list', 'of', 'strings']
One more method you will need for the PI questions:
>>> help(list.remove) Help on method_descriptor: remove(...) L.remove(value) -> None -- remove first occurrence of value. Raises ValueError if the value is not present.
To learn more about list methods check out the Python documentation.
Let’s check out an implementation of our scoring functions that uses lists. Here we read the scores into a list and perform multiple analyses on those scores, including assigning grades, which depends on having “seen” all of the scores.
Based on the built-in functions we saw today, is there is more concise implementation of average? Show the code…
def average(scores): """ Compute average of list of scores Args: scores: List of numeric scores Returns: Average of scores as a float """ return sum(scores) / len(scores)